- Evaluate and develop animal manure handling systems to reduce gaseous emissions. Confined animal feeding operations are seriously being considered for regulation under national air quality rules. Recently, the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, the US-EPA and the Idaho United Dairymen Association entered into an agreement that mandates a dairy implement approved practices if the dairy emits more than 100 tons of gaseous ammonia per year. Even with a conservative 50% loss estimate of the nitrogen excreted, a 1000-milking cow dairy would exceed the 100 ton limit. Significant amounts of ammonia emissions are widely known to occur from concentrated animal feeding operations. Information is lacking on losses from specific operations or areas of either open-lot or free-stall dairy operations. In addition, the effectiveness of the approved management practices on ammonia emissions in western, arid climate production environments are not well-defined. An existing FTIR (open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy instrument is available that will characterize gaseous losses of ammonia, methane and nitrous oxide over space and time. The additional funds of $131,466 will fund the use of FTIR to identify gas emission point sources and to develop remedial management practices. The proposed project is a continuation of project number 5368-12630-002-01S.