PAG Report 34 | Published June 2014 | The combined impacts of wildfires and invasive plant species are primary threats to greater sage-grouse populations in Idaho because they destroy and fragment habitat. Because of that, and other threats, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has proposed adding sage-grouse to the list of species protected by the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA), a decision that will be finalized in September 2015. The State of Idaho’s goal is to prevent the ESA listing by identifying conservation activities intended to ensure the long-term viability of sage-grouse in the state. An effective strategy to reduce the wildfire/invasives threat would include actions for: (1) protecting existing habitat by managing fuels, establishing fuel breaks, and restricting travel; (2) responding quickly to wildfires, using early detection methods and having the right resources in the right places at the right times; and (3) preventing invasive species from gaining footholds, which is best done by protecting existing habitat from wildfires and responding quickly to wildfires. An ESA listing will not be prevented unless such actions are adequately ensured by regulatory mechanisms. This report identifies what might suffice as adequate regulatory mechanisms.