PAG Report 35 | Published December 2014 | Wildfires in Idaho and throughout the western United States have increased in extent and intensity over the past 25 years, resulting in increased severity of adverse effects, including increased risks to firefighters, personal property, and ecosystem services, as well as increased costs for fire suppression and forest rehabilitation. One response to such wildfire problems is to design and implement fuel treatments in an attempt to reduce the severity of effects from wildfires. Fuel treatments lessen the amount of fuel available for burning and/or rearrange fuels to increase the probability that they burn with less intensity. This report summarizes research about fuel treatment effectiveness after wildfires have occurred and examines the risks associated with fuel treatments. In addition, the report summarizes policies that currently affect fuel treatment implementation and suggests policy options that may increase fuel treatment effectiveness.