Thesis (M.S., Water Resources)--University of Idaho, June 2014 | Water is a vital resource for life. Environmental lawyer Stephen C. McCaffery identifies "two ominous phenomena relating to fresh water: increased water usage and increased global population numbers." This combined increase in population and water scarcity has been labeled as a potential cause for future conflicts and wars. No place on earth is this clash more apparent than the Middle East North Africa Region, especially in the state of Egypt. Given the large population in Egypt and the lack of water, this thesis, using the lens of political ecology, explores how historic and contemporary water policies and laws have influenced water quantity and access to water, and, evaluates whether contemporary agricultural policies will aggravate or improve water management in Egypt in relation to water quantity and accessibility. Scarcity, corruption, and ineffective laws and policies have had a negative effect on water quantity and accessibility, ultimately undermining the sustainability of Egypt's use of a scarce natural resource, the River Nile.