Whole Grain Wheat Consumption in Young Children Can Increase Through Repeated Exposure and Use of Hard White Wheat Thesis uri icon



  • Thesis (M.S., Family and Consumer Sciences) -- University of Idaho, 2017 | National recommendations encourage whole grain (WG) consumption in children. The objective of this study was to assess children’s preference and consumption of WG wheat (with hard white wheat and hard red wheat) and the effects of repeated exposure. Two cohorts of children ages 2-6 years of age (n=101) participated in the study. Caregivers completed a questionnaire and children participated in taste activities with WG bread and tortillas. Descriptive statistics were reported for questionnaire responses. T-test and ANOVA were used to determine intake differences and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to identify differences in children’s reported liking of all samples between cohorts. Parents and children consumed WG bread (66%); however, 22% consumed wheat or white (not understanding WG). Children reported liking hard white wheat significantly more (p=.042) than hard red wheat bread, and they consumed greater amounts of hard white wheat but the difference was not significant. Repeated exposure resulted in significant differences in intake for all bread and tortillas. Results from the study demonstrated the benefit of repeated exposure and potential use of hard white wheat to increase WG consumption in young children.

publication date

  • June 1, 2017