Thesis (M.A., Anthropology) -- University of Idaho, 2017 | Arrow Shot Into Rock, located in the Pryor Mountains of southern Montana, is a place for travelers to offer gifts in return for their safe passage through the Pryor Gap. These gifts have mostly been left by members of the Crow Tribe and meant for the Awa-Kulay, or Little People, living in the mountains. The Little People are described as dwarves that are both human and supernatural beings that can act as spiritual guides for the Crow Tribe. Based on Crow oral histories Arrow Shot Into Rock is the place where the Crow encountered the Little People for the first time. The story of Arrow Shot Into Rock has continued to be told since their first meeting. The Little People have become very important for many Crow people and they are seen across Crow Country, visiting individuals during vision quests, and at larger social events. Arrow Shot Into Rock has been known to people off the reservation as well, resulting in two archaeological excavations in 1939 and 1941. In full collaboration with the Crow Tribe, this thesis is a unique project incorporating ethnographic, archival, and archaeological research related to Arrow Shot Into Rock. The historical and archaeological aspects are reevaluated through multiple retellings of the Arrow Shot Into Rock story, with the goal of creating a more complete history of the sacred place within past and current Crow culture.